Fundamental Duties in Indian Constitution
Option 2 is the right answer.
Originally, the Fundamental Duties were not provided in the Constitution. On the basis of the recommendations of Swarn Singh Committee, these duties were included in the Constitution under Article 51A of part IV by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976. Under these provisions, a citizen of India is expected to faithfully observe the following fundamental Duties.
The eleven fundamental duties are following :
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wild-life and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.
- Who is a parent or guardian , to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.