The destructive process of Mountain Top Removal mining (MTR) has caused permanent
Directions: Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives and mark it in the Answer Sheet.
Passage (Five Questions)
The destructive process of Mountain Top Removal mining (MTR) has caused permanent damage to Appalachia. Although the law requires that mining companies restore the mountaintops after the mining has been completed, the 1.5 million acres of mountains that have already been removed cannot be re-grown, re-built, or replaced. The companies do secure the rock formations to prevent erosion and landslides. But their efforts cannot recreate the once beautiful mountain landscape. Furthermore, while companies are usually vigilant abut securing the rock formations, they seem less interested in restoring the native vegetation. MTR operations clear enormous tracts of forest. Environmental hazards are not only created in preparing a mountaintop for mining, they also continue once the coal has been extracted. After the blast, the excess mountaintop – which miners refer to as “overburden” – is usually dumped into nearby valleys or streams. The overburden contains a variety of toxic substances, including explosive residue, silica and coal dust.
- The work opposite in meaning to “Vigilant” is
- MTR operations cause environmental hazards because
(a) mountaintops dumped in valleys & streams contain toxic substance.
(b) it destroys natural vegetation
(c) it causes explosion
(d) it causes landslides.
- In the Appalachian region MTR has caused
(b) widespread damage
(d) permanent beautification
- After the MTR operation, the mining companies
(a) replace the mountaintops
(b) beautify the mountains
(c) restore native vegetation
(d) secure rock formations to prevent erosion.
- The term “overburden” means
(a) excess mountaintop left after the extraction of coal through the blast.
(b) weeds planted by mining companies.
(c) remnants of natural forests.
(d) debris from landslides.